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Raja Bharthari

Introduction

LVGUF02841. Raja Bharthari (भरथरी, भर्तृहरि), also known as "Sant" Bharthari, was the ruler of Ujjain in the 1st century BC, before renouncing the world and abdicating in the favor of his younger brother Vikramaditya and became a follower of Guru Gorakhnath and along with his nephew Gopi Chand went to the Guru's hill abode in northern Punjab.

2. He was a great King, Saint, & poet. It was he who gave us the immortal Subhashita Trishati : consisting the trilogy of Neeti Sataka, Sringara Sataka and Vairagya Sataka which truly reflect his life expeiences as a king, as a lover and as an ascetic

3. He is famous for having written Bharathari Neetishatakam which is respected highly in Indian Literature, only sufficed by Bhagavad Gita.

4. Life Stories of Bharthari and his nephew King Gopi Chand of Bengal (Hindi: गोपीचन्द), abound in the Indian folklore of Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Chhatisgarh and West Bengal.

5. Much of the details about the lives of Bharthari and his brother Vikramaditya are captured in the tales of Baital Pachisi (Twenty five tales of Baital).

6. Pinglah Rani was Raja Bhartrhari's last and youngest wife.

7. The fair of bhratahari grouped by lakhs of peoples of alwar, jaipur, Dausa near Sariska in Alwar.

Bharathari & Pingala's Son

1. There is a very famous song sung by the bards of Chhatisgarh in the memory of Raja Bhartrhari.

2. The story says that Queen Pingala and Raja Bhartrhari did not have a son and the queen was very sad as a result of that.

3. A saint came to the door of their palace one day and asked for alms.

4. When Rani Pinglaa went down to give him alms, he said, "I know you are sad and I have brought some holy water(medicine) for you. If you drink this water with faith, you will have a son in twelve months' time."

5. Rani Pingala had the water and as promised by the Yogi, she had a son after twelve months.

Becoming a Saint

bhartariguffa1. Bharathari abdicated the throne, to his younger brother Vikramaditya, and became a religious mendicant.

2. He later became a disciple of 'Pattinathar' who first indulged in argument about samsari and sanyasi with king Bhartrhari later during the conversation pattinathar said that all women's have 'dual mind' it might be true case even with parameswari.

3. King conveyed this news to rani pingalah and she ordered pattinathar to get punished afterwards.

4. Next day Raja Bhartrhari was out for a hunt one day and he saw a woman jump into the pyre of her husband (Sati) as her grief would not let her stay alive. Raja Bhartrhari was moved and this incident stayed in his mind.

5. When he returned to his palace, he told the story to Rani Pingala and asked her if she would do the same. Rani Pingala said that she would die on hearing the news itself and there would be no chance of her staying alive until the funeral ceremony.

6. Raja Bhartrhari decided to test her and went on a hunt once again and sent the news of his death back to the palace.

7. The Mahaaraani died on hearing the news as she had promised and Raja Bhrithari was grief-stricken.

8. Pattinathar heard about the grief of the King and came to help him overcome his grief.

9. It is said that Guru Gorakhnath created 750 copies of Rani Pingala to demonstrate the illusory nature of the world to Raja Bhartrhari.

10. Even though Rani Pingala came alive Raja Bharthari decided to renounce the world and became a follower of Pattinathar.

11. He became a very famous saint and is also known as Sant Bhartrhari by the people of North India.

12. Bhratahari is famous in Alwar of Rajasthan. Astami is the worship day celebrate as a festival.

Bharathari Nitishatakam

367b9e5283754445bd1cfa1aed962cf91. The 'Neetishatakam' [नीतिशतकम् ], as the name suggests, is a collection of 100 subhashitas, composed by Bhartrhari [भर्तृहरि]। Three such shatakas have been attributed to this poet -
  • नीतिशतकम् , dealing with neeti [general moral sayings],
  • वैराग्यशतकम् , dealing with the nissaarataa-worthlessness- of wealth, women, etc
  • शृंगारशतकम् , dealing in erotic subhashitas. Apparently, this comes first chronologically. Bhartrhari wrote this in the prime of his youth, and then moved on to moralising and vairaagya.

  • 2. Bharathari gave us the immortal Subhashita Trishati consisting the trilogy of Neeti Sataka, Sringara Sataka and Vairagya Sataka which truly reflect his life expeiences as a king, as a lover and as an ascetic.

    3. Subhashita Trishati encompasses almost every experience known to man and pours them forth in beautiful poetry.

    4. Neetishataka, even though the title says 'shatakam', the number of shlokas in the work is not exactly 100. About 136 shlokas are attributed to the neetishatakam.

    5. The subhaashitas are divided into 10 categories called 'paddhatis'. The categories include moorkha-paddhati, vidwat-paddhati, maanashourya-paddhati, artha-paddhati, durjana-paddhati, sajjana-paddhati, paropakaara-paddhati, dhairya-paddhati, daiva-paddhati and karma-paddhati.

    6. The division of shlokas into paddhatis is not strictly biased to the paddhati. Though some verses very clearly belong to a particular category, there are many which could go into two or more of these, depending on how we look at it. But yet, the paddhati system is a convenient way to group together related subhashitas and study them.

    7. Neetishatakam provides philosophy to those interested in it. It provides metrical delight to lovers of poetry by the use of common meters such as Indravajra, Upendravajra, Vasantatilaka, Malini, Sikharini, Mandakranta, Sardulavikridita, Sragdhara etc. It teaches morality to those who would llike lead a moral life. It has some thing in it for every one who delves into its pages.

    8. To Summarize teachings of Neetishatakam : The poet sees the sufferings in the world and creates a wholistic view, as a result he seems to lament about- the kings who do not recognize the scholars; the pathetic state of the good men in the society; the disappointments that lie in store for the talented and so on. He goes on to such an extent to even deny the value of human effort, and talks about destiny or fate destroying all the efforts of talented men. Bharathari saw the sufferings of the common men and out of sheer disappointment blamed all the sufferings to the cruel destiny. But later he comes to the 'Karma' theory and states that all that happens is the result of his own past actions and that of previous lives. Neetishatakam is as beautiful as literature can be.

    Nitishatakam Teachings : Criticism of fools ( मूर्खनिन्दा )

    1. अज्ञः सुखमाराध्यः सुखतरमाराध्य्ते विशेषज्ञ: ।
    ज्ञानलवदुर्विदग्धं ब्रह्मापि नरं न रंजयति ॥
    The ignorant one is easily convinced. It is easier to convince a really knowledgeable person. But even the Creator himself will not be able to convince a fool who, with his half-baked knowledge, thinks that he is the wisest person in the world.

    2. स्वायत्तमेकान्तगुणं विधात्रा विनिर्मितं छादनमज्ञतायाः ।
    विशेषतः सर्वविदां समाजे विभूषणं मौनमपण्डितानाम्॥
    Brahma has created a unique quality, which is available to any one, for covering one’s ignorance. This quality is silence. Especially in an assembly of all-knowing wise men, silence becomes the adornment of fools since it keeps their ignorance from coming to light.

    3. यदा किञ्चिज्ञोऽहं द्विप इव मदान्धः समभवं तदा सर्वज्ञोऽस्मीत्यभवदवलिप्तं मम मनः ।
    यदा किञ्चित् किञ्चित् बुधजनसकाशादवगतं तदा मूर्खोऽस्मीति ज्वर इव मदो मे व्यपगतः
    When I had a little knowledge I was blind with conceit like a rutty elephant. I thought I was all-knowing and my vanity was great. Then, gradually, by virtue of my association with wise men, it dawned on me that knowledge was a vast ocean. My intoxication vanished like a fever and I realized that I was really a fool.

    4. शक्यो वारयितुं जलेन हुतभुक् छत्रेण सूर्यातपो नागेन्द्रोनिशितांकुशेन समदो दण्डेन गौर्गर्दभः ।
    व्याधिर्भेषजसंग्रहैश्च विविधैः मन्त्रप्रयोगैर्विषं सर्वस्यौषधमस्ति शास्त्रविहितं मूर्खस्य नास्त्यौषधम् ॥
    Fire can be put out by water. An umbrella can be used as protection from the sun. The rutty elephant can be controlled with an ankush (a weapon with a sharp hook at one end used by a mahout). A cow or donkey can be herded with a stick. A disease can be treated with medicines. Poison can be counteracted by chanting mantras. There is a remedy for everything prescribed in the shaastras. But there is no remedy for the fool.

    Nitishatakam Teachings : Praise of the learned and the wise ( विद्वत प्रशंसा )

    1. हर्तुर्याति न गोचरं किमपि शं पुष्णातियस्सर्वदा- ह्यर्थिभ्यः प्रतिपाद्यमानमनिशं प्राप्नोति वृद्धिं परां ।
    कल्पान्तेष्वपि न प्रयाति निधनं विद्याख्यमन्तर्धनं येषां तान् प्रति मानमुञ्झत नृपाः कस्तैस्सह स्पर्धते॥
    It is not visible to the thief. It always bestows on the possessor joy and happiness. The more it is imparted to those who want it the more it increases. Even after ages it never perishes. It is vidya (learning, knowledge) which is an internal wealth. O Kings! Do not pride yourselves before those who possess such wealth of knowledge. Who can compete with them?

    2. केयूराणि न भूषयन्ति पुरुषं हारा न चंद्रोज्ज्वला न स्नानं न विलेपनं न कुसुमं नालंकृताः मूर्धजाः ।
    वाण्येका समलंकरोति पुरुषं या संस्कृता धार्यते क्षीयन्तेऽखिलभूषणानि सततं वाग्भूषणं भूषणम्॥
    Glittering gold and diamond ornaments, bathing, sandal wood paste for the body, flowers and adornments for the head do not really embellish a person. The greatest adornment of a person is refined and soft speech. All other articles of adornment pale into insignificance before such speech.

    3. क्षान्तिश्चेत्कवचेनकिं? किमरिभिः क्रोधोऽस्तिचेद्देहिनां ज्ञातिश्चेदनलेन किं? यदि सुहृत् दिव्यौषधैः किं फलं?।
    किं सर्पैर्यदिदुर्ज्जनाः किमु धनैर्विद्यानवद्या यदि व्रीडा चेत्किमुभूषणैः सुकविता यद्यस्ति राज्येन किं?
    If one has patience (endurance) what is the use of a shield? If one has anger what if enemies are there, anger being the greatest enemy. If a person has relatives he should not worry about fire because the relatives will generate enough heat for him. If one has a friend that friend will do the work of highly effective medicines. If one is in the company of evil men, such evil men will do the work of a poisonous snake. If one has unblemished learning there is no use of wealth as learning is inexhaustible wealth. If one has shyness (modesty) gold and diamond adornments are of no use. If one has beautiful and ennobling poems and literature, the resultant happiness is more than having a kingdom.

    Nitishatakam Teachings : Praise of self-respect and valour ( मान शौर्य प्रशंसा )

    1. दाक्षिण्यं स्वजने दया परिजने शाठ्यं सदा दुर्जने प्रीतिस्साधुजने नयो नृपजने विद्वज्जनेष्वार्जवं |
    शौर्यं शत्रुजने क्षमा गुरुजने कान्ताजनॆ धृष्टता ये चैवं पुरुषाः कलासु कुशलाः तेष्वेव लोकस्थितिः||
    Those who are skilled in the art of interpersonal relationships show generosity towards relatives, kindness to servants, severity to evil men, devotion to saintly persons, diplomacy towards kings, straightforwardness where learned persons are concerned, valour towards enemies, patience towards elders and tactfulness with women. The world depends on the skill of such people.

    2. प्रारभ्यते न खलु विघ्नभयेन नीचैः प्रारभ्य विघ्नविहता विरमन्ति मध्याः।
    विघ्नैः पुनः पुनरपि प्रतिहन्यमानाः प्रारब्धमुत्तमगुणा न परित्यजन्ति ॥
    There are three categories of persons who contemplate an undertaking. At the lowest level are those who never start off for fear of encountering obstacles. Those at the middle level start the project but, at the first sign of obstacles, withdraw themselves from the endeavour. At the top level are those who, in spite of repeated obstacles, persist in their endeavour until they take the undertaking to a successful conclusion.

    3. क्षुत्क्षामोऽपि जराकृशोऽपि शिथिलप्रायोऽपि कष्टांदशा- मापन्नोऽपि विपन्न दीधितिरपि प्राणेषु नश्यत्स्वपि ।
    मत्तेभेन्द्र विभिन्न कुंभ कवळ ग्रासैक बद्धस्पुह: किं जीर्णं तृणमत्ति मानमहतामग्रेसर केसरी ॥
    The Lion, King of the forest, who breaks the head of the elephant and bites into its flesh to satisfy his hunger, will never stoop to the level of eating dry grass. He may be famished by hunger and weakened by old age. His limbs may have lost their flexibility and his condition may be miserable and even his life may be ebbing out of his body. But he will never do anything which is beneath his dignity and majesty as the King of the forest. Similar is the nature of men of substance and majesty.

    4. स्वल्पस्नायु वसावसेकमलिनं निर्मांसमप्यस्थिकं श्वा लब्ध्वा परितोषमेति न तु तत्तस्य क्षुधा शान्तये।
    सिंहो जम्बुकमंगमागतमपि त्यक्त्वा निहन्ति द्विपं सर्वः कृच्छ्रगतोऽपि वाञ्झति जनः सत्वानुरूपं फलम् ॥
    The dog is satisfied with a piece of bare bone which is dirty with a little blood and fatty substance on it though it is not sufficient to satisfy its hunger. The lion, on the other hand, ignores the jackal within its reach and kills a mighty elephant for his meal. Men of majesty, though passing through a difficult period of their life, do not want to compromise their dignity and will accept only something befitting their dignity and strength.

    5. परिवर्तिनि संसारे मृतः को वा न जायते।
    स जातो येन जातेन याति वंशः समुन्नतिम् ॥
    In this world of constant change who does not take birth after one dies ? But one who takes his clan to greater heights is the one really born.

    6. सिंहश्शिशुरपि निपतति मदमलिनकपोलभित्तिषु गजेषु ।
    प्रकृतिरियं सत्त्ववतां न खलु वयस्तेजसो हेतुः॥
    Even a lion cub attacks a rutty elephant and breaks its head. This is the nature of men of strength and majesty. Age does not affect their prowess.

    Nitishatakam Teachings : Praise of wealth ( द्रव्य प्रशंसा )

    1. जातिर्यातु रसातलं गुणगणास्तस्याप्यधो गच्छतां शीलं शैलतटात्पतत्वभिजनो संदह्यतां वह्निना ।
    शौर्ये वैरिणि वज्रमाशुनिपतत्वर्थोऽस्तु नः केवलं येनैकेन विना गुणास्तृणलवप्रायास्समस्ता इमे ॥
    Let the jaati (caste, occupation) sink to the nether world. Let all good qualities go down deeper still. Let good conduct fall from the top of a hill. Let all relatives be burnt in a fire. Let valour against the enemy be struck by thunderbolt. Let us have only wealth (money). Without money all good qualities are nothing more than a bundle of grass.

    2. यस्यास्ति वित्तं स नरः कुलीनः स पण्डितः स श्रुतवान् गुणज्ञः।
    स एव वक्ता स च दर्शनीयः सर्वेगुणाः काञ्चनमाश्रयन्ति॥
    If one has wealth he is considered born of a good family. He is learned, he recognizes good qualities, he is an orator, he is handsome etc. All these qualities are attributed to a man possessing wealth whether or not these qualities actually reside in him.

    3. दानं भोगो नाशस्तिस्रोगतयो भवन्ति वित्तस्य ।
    यो न ददाति न भुङ्क्ते तस्य तृतीया गतिर्भवति ॥
    Giving to others, enjoying oneself or losing it – these are the only ways for utilising wealth. If one does not give to others or enjoy himself, it will result in the third course i.e. loss of wealth (either by theft, deceit, fire or squandering).

    4. राजन् दुधुक्षसि यदि क्षितिधेनुमेनां तेनाद्यवत्समिव लोकममुं पुषाण।
    तस्मिंश्च सम्यगनिशं परिपुष्यमाणे नाना फलं फलति कल्पलतेव भूमिः ॥
    O King! The earth (land) over which you rule is like a cow. If you want to milk the cow you should nourish the calf, your subjects, with the milk of the cow. If you do this always diligently the earth will yield you all its resources in abundance like a wish-yielding creeper (kalpalataa)

    5. आज्ञा कीर्तिः पालनं ब्राह्मणानां दानं भोगो मित्रसंरक्षणम् च।
    येषामेते षड्गुणाः न प्रवृत्ता: कोऽर्थस्तेषां पार्थिवोपाश्रयेण ॥
    Power, fame, care of brahmins, charity, enjoyment of the fruits of wealth and protection of one’s friends – if these six are not in a person serving the king, then what is the use of being in the service of the king?

    6. रे रे चातक! सावधानमनसा मित्र क्षणं श्रूयतां अंभोदा बहवो हि सन्ति गगने सर्वेऽपि नैतादृशाः।
    केचिद्वृष्टिभिरार्द्रयन्ति वसुधां गर्जन्ति केचित् वृथा यं यं पश्यसि तस्य तस्य पुरतो मा ब्रूहि दीनं वच: ||
    O Friend chaataka! Listen carefully to what I am saying. There are so many clouds in the sky but all of them are not of the same character. Some of them drench the earth with precious rain. Some others do nothing but thundering. They do not yield a drop of water. Therefore do not beg for water before every cloud you seen in the sky.

    [ Note: The legenday bird chataka is supposed to quench its thirst only from water from the clouds. Here clouds are the kings. And the chataka birds are those who want to make a living by serving the king. Here is advice to such persons that they should not approach all and sundry. Only a few kings are generous, others only boast of themselves but are stingy.]

    Nitishatakam Teachings : Criticism of evil men ( दुर्जन निंदा )

    1. अकरुणत्वमकारणविग्रहः परधने परयोषिति च स्पृहा ।
    स्वजबन्धुजनेष्वसहिष्णुता प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि महात्मनाम् ॥
    Cruelty, fighting with others for no reason whatsoever, desire for others’ wealth and women, jealousy at the prosperity of relatives and other family members – men of evil mind are naturally endowed with these bad qualities.

    2. दुर्जनः परिहर्तव्यो विद्ययाऽलंकृतोऽपि सन् ।
    मणिना भूषितः सर्पः किमसौ न भयंकरः ॥
    Evil men should be avoided though they may be learned. Is a serpent adorned with a jewel (naaga maanikya) less frightening? [Note: Legend has it that good serpents have a luminous stone (maanikya) on top of their hood]

    3. लोभश्चेदगुणेन किं पिशुनता यद्यस्ति किं पातकैः सत्यं चेत्तपसा च किं शुचिमनो यद्यस्ति तीर्थेन किम्।
    सौजन्यं यदि किं जनैः सुमहिमा यद्यस्ति किं मण्डनैः सद्विद्या यदि किं धनैरपयशो यद्यस्ति किं मृत्युना ॥
    If one has greed what is the need for other bad qualities? If one is a backbiter what is the need for evil deeds? If one has Truth what is the need for tapas? If one is pure of mind what is the need for teertha (holy rivers, lakes, sea etc.)? If one is of good conduct what is the need for friends ? If one has fame what is the use of ornaments? If one has right learning why does he need wealth? If one is infamous why does he need death? [ Note: The idea is that for one possessing the quality listed first, the quality listed second is redundant. The first quality is adequate without the second.]

    4. मौनान्मूकः प्रवचनपटुः वाचको जल्पको वा धृष्टः पार्श्वे वसति च तथा दूरतश्चाप्रगल्भः ।
    क्षान्त्या भीरुर्यदि न सहते प्रायशो नाभिजात: सेवाधर्म परमगहनो योगिनामप्यगम्यः ||
    Here the poet lists the difficulty of serving the King or other wealthy person. If the person serving is silent he is considered dumb. If he is a good orator he is dubbed a chatterbox or a babbler. If he stays near he is termed impudent. If he stays away he is called a fool. If he forgives he is timid. If he cannot endure he does not come from a good family. The duties of a servant are such that even yogis may find difficult to approach.

    5. आरंभगुर्वी क्षयिणी क्रमेण लघ्वी पुरा दीर्घमुपैति पश्चात् ।
    दिनस्य पूर्वार्धपरार्ध भिन्ना छायेवे मौत्री खलसज्जनानाम् ॥
    In the forenoon the shadow of a person is long as the Sun rises. It gradually becomes shorter until the Sun is at the zenith. In the afternoon the shadow is short to begin with but becomes gradually longer until the Sun sets. The friendship of evil men, like the shadow of the forenoon, is long to start with but gradually fizzles out. On the other hand, the friendship of good men is like the shadow of the afternoon. It is short to start with and gradually becomes longer(closer) over a period.

    6. मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजलसंतोष विहित वृत्तीनां ।
    लुब्धक धीवर पिशुना निष्कारणमेव वैरिणो जगति ॥
    Deer, fish and good men live on grass, water and contentment respectively. But the hunter, the fisherman and the backbiter, respectively, are their enemies without any reason. This is the nature of evil men.

    Nitishatakam Teachings : Praise of good men ( सुजन प्रशंसा )

    1. संपत्सु महतां चित्तं भवत्युत्पलकोमलं ।
    आपत्सु च महाशैल-शिलासंघात कर्कशम् ॥
    In good times the heart of great men is soft as the petals of the lotus flower. In bad times, however, it becomes as hard as the rocks of the mountain.

    2. वाञ्झा सज्जनसंगतौ परगुणे प्रीतिर्गुरौ नम्रता विद्यायां व्यसनं स्वयोषिति रतिः लोकापवादात् भयम्।
    भक्तिः शूलिनि शक्तिरात्मदमने संसर्गमुक्तिः खले- ष्वेते येषु वसन्ति निर्मलगुणास्तेभ्यो महद्भ्यो नमः ॥
    Salutations to those great men in whom reside such sterling qualities as the desire for friendship with the good, appreciation of good qualities in others, humility before the guru, thirst for knowledge, find conjugal pleasure in one’s own wife, fear of scandals about one’s character, devotion to Lord Shiva, power to control one’s mind and avoiding the company of evil men.

    3. विपदिधैर्यमथाभ्युदये क्षमा सदसि वाक्पटुता युधि विक्रमः।
    यशसिचाभिरुचिर्व्यसनं श्रुतौ प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि महात्मनाम्॥
    Great men are naturally endowed with such qualities as courage in times of misfortune, patience when the times are good, oratory skills in an assembly, valour in battle, desire to earn fame and addiction to acquisition of knowledge.

    4. संतप्तायसि संस्थितस्य पयसो नामापि न श्रूयते मुक्ताकारतया तदेव नलिनीपत्रस्थितं राजते ।
    मध्ये सागरशुक्तिमध्यपतितं तन्मौक्तिकं जायते प्रायेणाधम मध्यमोत्तमगुनाः संसर्गतो देहिनाम् ॥
    A drop of water in contact with hot iron evaporates in no time and is lost. The same drop of water on a lotus leaf shines taking the shape of a pearl. If the drop of water gets into a pearl oyster it becomes pearl itself. This analogy can be applied to humans. The qualities one acquires depend on the quality of the person with whom one associates. The three illustrations given relate to association with people with levels of low, medium and high quality

    5. प्रीणाति यस्सुचरितैः पितरं स पुत्रो यद्भर्तुरेव हितमिच्छति तत्कलत्रं।
    तन्मित्रमापदि सुखे च समक्रियं यत् एतत्त्रयं जगति पुण्यकृतो लभन्ते॥
    A son is one who, by his good conduct and character, pleases one’s father. A wife is one who always thinks of her husband’s good. A friend is one whose behaviour remains constant in misfortune and good fortune. Only people who have earned merit (punya) by doing good deeds will be blessed with such a son, wife and friend.

    Nitishatakam Teachings : Praise of helping others ( परोपकार स्तुति )

    1. भवन्ति नम्रास्तरव फलोद्गमैः नवांबुभिर्भूमिविलंबिनो घनाः।
    अनुद्धता सत्पुरुषाः समृद्धिभिः स्वभाव एवैष परोपकारिणाम्॥
    Tress laden with fruits bend down (so that people may enjoy the fruits). Clouds laden with water come down (in the form of rain cooling the earth and watering plants and trees). In the same way noble men do not become conceited when fortune embraces them but use their wealth to help others. This is the nature of persons who are always eager to be of help to fellow humans.

    2. पापान्निवारयति योजयते हिताय गुह्यं निगूहति गुणान् प्रकटीकरोति।
    आपद्गतं च न जहाति ददाति काले सन्मित्रलक्षणमिदं प्रवदन्ति सन्तः॥
    Saintly persons say that the mark of a true friend is preventing one from committing sinful actions, putting one on the path that will lead to good only, keeping one’s secrets, bringing out the innate qualities in one, not forsaking when one is in trouble and giving one whatever is required at the appropriate time.

    3. एते सत्पुरुषाः परार्थघटकाः स्वार्थान् परित्यज्य ये सामान्यास्तु परार्थमुद्यमभृतः स्वार्थाविरोधेन ये ।
    तेऽमी मानुषराक्षसा: परहितं स्वार्थाय निघ्नन्ति ये ये तु घ्नन्ति निरर्थकं परहितं ते के न जानीमहे॥
    Those are the greatest souls who, for the sake of helping others, forsake their own interests or comforts. Those are among the ordinary run of people who, without compromising their own interests, engage themselves in helping others. Those are verily demons in the shape of men who, for the sake of their selfish ends, put obstacles in the way of others and spoil their endeavours. What can be said about those who, without any purpose, come in the way of others’ welfare? We do not know.

    4. क्षीरेणात्मगतोदकाय हि गुणाः दत्ताः पुरा तेऽखिलाः क्षीरोत्तापमवेक्ष्य तेन पयसा स्वात्मा कृशानौ हुतः ।
    गन्तुं पावकमुन्मनस्तदभवत् दृष्ट्वा तु मित्रापदं युक्तं तेन जलेन शाम्यति सतां मैत्री पुनस्त्वीदृशी॥
    Milk gave all its qualities to water that was mixed with it. When milk was being heated on a fire water, unable to bear the suffering of its friend, sacrificed itself in the fire (i.e. water in the milk evaporated). Milk, in turn, finding water in trouble, itself comes up in the boiling pot to offer itself to the fire. But, mixed with water again, it settle downs to the previous level. The friendship of good people is like this. Each is prepared to sacrifice himself to save the other.

    5. मनसि वचसि काये पुण्यपीयूषपूर्णाः त्रिभुवनमुपकारश्रेणिभि: प्रीणयन्तः।
    परगुणपरमाणून् पर्वतीकृत्य नित्यं निजहृदि विकसन्तः सन्ति सन्तः कियन्तः ॥
    There are only a handful of good people in this world who, in thought, word and body (deed) are full of the sweetness of nectar. Such people please the three worlds by their continuous efforts for helping others. Their hearts fill with joy when they find even an iota of good in others and shower high praise on such good qualities.

    Nitishatakam Teachings : Praise of courage and determination ( धैर्य गुणगान )

    1. रत्नैर्महाब्धेः तुतुषुर्न देवाः न भेजिरे भीमविषेन भीतिं ।
    सुधाम् विना न प्रययुर्विरामं न निश्चितार्थाद्विरमन्ति धीराः ॥
    The Devas, while churning the milky ocean, got invaluable jewels but they were not content with that. Even poison from the churning could not deter them from their goal. They were determined not to stop until thery obtained the nectar. Those of strong will and determination never stop until they realize their objective.

    2. क्वचित् भूमौ शय्या क्वचिदपि च पर्यङ्कशयनं क्वचिच्छाकाहारः क्वचिदपि च शाल्यन्नरुचिः।
    क्वचित्कंथाधारी क्वचिदपि च दिव्यांबरधरो मनस्वी कार्यार्थी न गणयति दु:खं न च सुखम्॥
    Those of courage and determination may sleep on the hard earth or on a soft bed, may eat a meal of vegetables or enjoy the taste of fine rice, clothe themselves in tatters or put on fine clothes. These diametrically opposite states do not deter them from their objective. They are focused on their goal and do not care for pleasure or pain.

    3. ऐश्वर्यस्य विभूषणं सुजनता शौर्यस्य वाक्संयमो ज्ञानस्योपशमः श्रुतस्य विनयॊ वित्तस्य पात्रे व्ययः।
    अक्रोधस्तपसः क्षमा प्रभवितुर्धर्मस्य निर्व्याजता सर्वेषामपि सर्वकारणमिदं शीलं परं भूषणम् ॥
    Affluence is adorned by goodness, valour by not boasting, knowledge by control of the senses, scholarship by modesty, wealth by giving to the deserving, tapas by the absence of anger, power by forgiveness and dharma by Truth. All good qualities of men are embellished by good conduct.

    4. निन्दन्तु नीतिनिपुणा यदिवा स्तुवन्तु लक्ष्मीः समाविशातु गच्छतु वा यथेष्टं।
    अद्यैव वा मरणमस्तु युगान्तरे वा न्यायात्पथात्प्रविचलन्ति पदं न धीराः ॥
    Those of courage and determination will not ever deviate from the righteous path whether knowers of codes of conduct (neeti nipunaah) praise or blame them , whether Goddess Lakshmi (wealth) comes to them or leaves them, whether death comes immediately or after ages.

    Nitishatakam Teachings : On Fate (Destiny) ( भाग्य )

    1. भग्नाशस्य करण्डपिण्डिततनोः म्लानेन्द्रियस्य क्षुधा कृत्वाखुर्विवरं स्वयं निपतितो नक्तं मुखे भोगिनः ।
    तृप्तस्तत्पिशितेन सत्वरमसौ तेनैव यातः पथा लोकाः पश्यत दैवमेव हि नृणाम् वृद्धौ क्षये कारणम्॥
    A snake, caught by a snake charmer, was put in a round casket made of cane. It was lying inside the casket coiled and afflicted by hunger. All its senses had become weak and it had no hope of getting out. Then, during the night, a rat made a whole in the casket and got into it. The snake caught the rat and satisfied its hunger. It then escaped through the very hole the rat had made. It is clear that only fate (destiny) is behind the fortunes or misfortunes of men.

    2. छिन्नोऽपि रोहति तरुः क्षीणोप्युपचीयते पुनश्चन्द्र: ।
    इति विमृशन्तस्सन्तः सन्तप्यन्ते न विलुप्ता लोके ॥
    A tree sprouts again after it is cut, the moon waxes again after waning. Contemplating thus and consoling themseleve that is their fate, good men do not grieve in times of misfortune.

    3. नेता यस्य बृहस्पतिः प्रहरणं वज्रं सुराः सैनिकाः स्वर्गो दुर्गमनुग्रहः किल हरेरैरावतो वारणः।
    इत्यैश्वर्यबलान्वितोऽपि बलिभिर्भग्नः परैः संगरे तद्व्यक्तं वरमेव दैवशरणं धिक् धिक् वृथा पौरुषं ॥
    Indra has Brihaspati as his guru, vajraayudha as his weapon, , devas as his army, Heaven as his fort and Airawata as his elephant. He has also the blessings of Hari. In spite of all this he is defeated by the powerful asuras. It is clear that it is better to take refuge in fate (daivam). Fie on human effort.

    4. खर्वाटो दिवसेश्वरस्य किरणैर्संतापिते मस्तके गच्छन् देशमनातपं द्रुतगतिस्तालस्य मूलं गतः ।
    तत्राप्यस्य महाफलेन पतता भग्नं सशब्दं शिरः प्रायो गच्छति यत्र दैवहतकस्तत्रैव यान्त्यापदः॥
    A wayfarer, his bald head exposed to the heat of the sun, hastened to take shelter under a palmyrah tree. No sooner had he come under the shade of the tree, his head was broken with a great sound by the big fruit falling from the tree. Wherever an ill-fated person goes misfortune follows him.

    Nitishatakam Teachings : Karma ( कर्म )

    1. ब्रह्मा येन कुलालवन्नियमितो ब्रह्माण्ड भाण्डोदरे विष्णुर्येन दशावतार गहने क्षिप्तो महासंकटे ।
    रुद्रो येन कपालपाणिपुटके भिक्षाटनं सेवते सूर्यॊ भ्राम्यति नित्यमेव गगने तस्मै नमः कर्मणे ॥
    Salutations to karma which has made Brahma a potter (creator) in the universe, which has put Vishnu in difficult circumstances through His ten incarnations, which has made Shiva beg for alms with a container made of the human skull and at the bidding of which the Sun wanders in the sky every day.

    2. नैवाकृतिर्फलति नैव कुलं न शीलं विद्यापि नैव न च यत्नकृतानि सेवा
    भाग्यानि पूर्वतपसा खलु सञ्चितानि काले फलन्ति पुरुषस्य यथैव वृक्षाः ॥
    An attractive form, noble lineage, good conduct, scholarship, efforts made to serve kings or wealthy persons – all these are of no consequence. Only the merit earned and accumulated by the meritorious deeds (tapas) of the previous births will yield the desired results like trees which yield their fruits at the appropriate time.

    3. वने रणे शत्रुजलाग्निमध्ये महार्णवे पर्वतमस्तके वा।
    सुप्तं प्रमत्तं विषमस्थितं वा रक्षन्ति पुण्यानि पुरा कृतानि ॥
    Only the fruits of meritorious acts done in the past can save a person lost in a forest, fighting a battle, facing enemies, engulfed by water or fire, in the vast ocean or on the mountain top while sleeping, inadvertent or facing difficult situations.

    4. भीमं वनं भवति यस्य पुरं प्रधानं सर्वो जनस्स्वजनतामुपयान्ति तस्य ।
    कृत्स्ना च भूर्भवति सन्निधिरत्नपूर्णा यस्यास्ति पूर्वसुकृतं विपुलं नरस्य ॥
    A dense forest becomes the capital city, all people become friends and the whole world becomes full of valuable treasures for the one who has accumulated in previous births fruits of meritorious actions (punya).

    5. को लाभो गुणिसंगमः किमसुखं प्राज्ञेतरैर्संगतिः का हानिर्समयच्युतिः निपुणता का धर्मतत्त्वे रतिः ।
    कः शूरो विजितेन्द्रियः प्रियतमाकाऽनुव्रता किं धनं विद्या किं सुखमप्रवासगमनं राज्यं किमाज्ञाफलम्॥
    What is gain? Company of good people. What is pain? Company of fools. What is loss? Wastage of time. What is skill? Passion for the principles of dharama. Who is valiant? One who has conquered his senses. Who is dear to the husband? A wife who follows in the footsteps of the husband. What is wealth? Learning. What is happiness? Not being in a far away land. What is kingdom? The power to command people.

    6. कान्ताकटाक्षविशिखा न दहन्ति यस्य चित्तं न निर्दहति कोपकृशानुतापः
    कर्षन्ति भूरिविषयाश्च न लोभपाशैः लोकत्रयं जयति कृत्स्नमिदं स धीरः
    One who does not burn in the fire of passion generated by the eye-arrows of beautiful women, who is not subjected to the heat of anger, whom the pleasures of the senses do not drag with ropes of greed – that person of adamantine heart conquers all the three worlds.

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